Забудь про Карту Мира, в которую все тыкали с детства
- Published on: Monday, December 2, 2019
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We've all seen the world map a thousand times. But what if this cat playing with Australia isn't really a cat at all? And Russia is not as huge as we all think?
This is the famous Flemish cartographer and geographer Gerard Kremer, aka Gerard Mercator in the Latin version.
It was he who first used an equilateral cylindrical projection when compiling a navigational map of the world on 18 sheets in 1569. How did such a projection turn out? To put it simply, the cartographer made cuts on the surface of the globe from the North and from the South and put it in this form on the plane. Then he drew a picture between the cuts. As a result, the Northern and southern regions were greatly stretched, and the territories on the equator remained the same size.
Maybe if he were to draw his projection digitally on a tablet, it would be more accurate? Who knows?..
Now let's continue. And open the world map from Yandex. It is obvious that Russia is about twice the SIZE and WIDTH of Africa. But in fact, Africa is LARGER than Russia in width, about 500 kilometers.
So that... Russia is great, but Africa is still wider...
The same principle applies to all other countries. Most modern maps do not reflect actual dimensions and distances if they are North and South of the equator. That is, the lands that are located in the Northern and southern hemispheres-in reality, less than it is visible on the maps in the Mercator projection, created over the past few centuries.
How do you like such a global conspiracy? Moreover, the Northern regions are particularly distorted. And this distortion is the greater, the farther North the territories are located.
Another great example is Greenland. Look how big it is. On this site can fit two of Australia! Greenland is visually even a little bigger than Africa! Then why are Australia and Africa continents and Greenland an island?
Or, for example, India and Mongolia, almost the same size. In fact, India is more than twice the SIZE of Mongolia.
And here's what Canada looks like in reality, for example, compared to Brazil.
But if the Mercator projection does not reflect the real state of Affairs how things work with other projections? Perhaps among them there is the most realistic. After all, someone had to figure out how to transfer objects and distances from the surface of the planet to the plane without distortion.
For example, an Equidistant map projection.
It is characterized by a simple geometry, while maintaining distances along the equator and all meridians. But here, too, disorder with size and even form of.
And this is an equal-sized cylindrical projection by Johann Lambert, developed in 1772; the Northern regions are unrealistically flattened.
A cartographic projection by James gall and Arno Peters, created in the mid-19th century.
Too tapered and elongated North of the equator.
Miller's 1942 cylindrical projection.
Already better, but again we see a huge Greenland and a fairly compressed North.
What is this?
It seems that during the printing of the card on the printer, the paper jammed. This is what the Central cylindrical projection looks like.
But these are not all options.
There are also so-called pseudo-cylindrical projections. For example, the projection of Eckert (show), hood (show), Kavraysky (show), Wagner (show) - by the way, a good option, only Antarctica is too large compared to the real size and also somewhat flattened North.
Conical projections do not reflect the situation in the lower part of the southern hemisphere (show), so this option is not suitable.
Pseudokoningii - closer to the truth (show), but too much distorted shape, for example, Australia and the Americas.
There are also azimuthal map projections.
They, too, closer to truth, but again same strongly inherited Australia and other territories, located on equator.
By the way, such cards up to the middle of the 20th century were used by aircraft pilots.
Of particular interest are polyhedral map projections. For example, the so-called “butterfly” of Bernard Cahill
And this version of his “butterfly”, created in 1915, was used for Intercontinental flights, which indicates the real distances between the main objects on the map. Here the shapes of continents and countries are not distorted, and the size, in principle, too.
Or here's another similar card - Steve Waterman's “butterfly."
As you can see, the deformation is insignificant. Agree, this is much more realistic than the Mercator projection, where the Northern regions are 2-3 times larger than they actually are.
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- Source: https://youtu.be/dJUr7cQdmPc